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Maps from Civitates on our Site



Braun and Hogenberg

Civitates orbis terrarum

The first volume of the Civitates Orbis Terrarum was published in Cologne in 1572. The sixth and the final volume appeared in 1617.

This great city atlas, edited by Georg Braun and largely engraved by Franz Hogenberg, eventually contained 546 prospects, bird-eye views and map views of cities from all over the world. Braun (1541-1622), a cleric of Cologne, was the principal editor of the work, and was greatly assisted in his project by the close, and continued interest of Abraham Ortelius, whose Theatrum Orbis Terrarum of 1570 was, as a systematic and comprehensive collection of maps of uniform style, the first true atlas.

The Civitates, indeed, was intended as a companion for the Theatrum, as indicated by the similarity in the titles and by contemporary references regarding the complementary nature of two works. Nevertheless, the Civitates was designs to be more popular in approach, no doubt because the novelty of a collection of city plans and views represented a more hazardous commercial undertaking than a world atlas, for which there had been a number of successful precedents. Franz Hogenberg (1535-1590) was the son of a Munich engraves who settled in Malines. He engraved most of the plates for Ortelius's Theatrum and the majority of those in the Civitates, and may have been responsible for originating the project.

Over a hundred of different artists and cartographers, the most significant of whom was Antwerp artist Georg (Joris) Hoefnagel (1542-1600), engraved the cooper-plates of the Civitates from drawings. He not only contributed most of the original material for the Spanish and Italian towns but also reworked and modified those of other contributors. After Hoefnagel's death his son Jakob continued the work for the Civitates. A large number of Jacob van Deventer (1505-1575), also known as Jacob Roelofszof, unpublished works, plans of towns of the Netherlands were copied, as were Stumpf's woodcuts from the Schweizer Chronik of 1548, and Munster's German views from the 1550 and 1572 editions of his Cosmographia. Another important source for maps was the Danish cartographer Heinrich van Rantzau (1526-1599), beter known under his Latin name Rantzovius, who provided maps of Northern Europe, specially of Danish cities. The Civitates provided a uniquely comprehensive view of urban life at the turn of the sixteenth century. Other sources were the maps of Sebastian Munster from around 1550 and , and of.

Braun added to the maps figures in local dress. This feature was anticipated in Hans Lautensack's etched view of Nuremberg, 1552, those groups of citizens in the rural foreground add further authenticity to the highly accurate topographical details of what was effectively Germany's cultural capital at that time. Braun's motives for adding figures to the views, however, went further: as stated in his introduction to book 1, he believed, perhaps optimistically, that his plans would not in consequence be scrutinized for military secrets by the Turks, as their religion forbade them from looking on representations of the human form.

The plans, each accompanies by Braun's printed account of the town's history, situation and commerce, form an armchair traveler's compendium, which the scholar Robert Burton in The Anatomy of Melancholy of 1621 asserted would not only provide instructions but would uplift the spirit as well.





      Sources:

    1. James Elliot, The city in maps urban mapping to 1900,1987,London
    2. Ronald VereTooley, Tooley's Dictionary of Mapmakers, 1979,N.Y
    3. Materials were used from George M. Welling's Historic Maps of Dutch Cartographers webpage.



Maps from Civitates on our site:


Volume I
(1572)

Aachen
Aden
Amsterdam
Ancona
Antwerpen
Appenzell
Arras
Asilah
Augsburg
Azemmour
Barcelona
Basel
Bern
Bordeaux
Braunschweig
Bremen
Brouwershaven
Bruges
Brussels
Budapest
Cadiz
Cagliari
Cairo
Calicut
Cannanore
Casablanca
Cascais
Ceuta
Cheb
Cologne
Cusco
Dresden
Diu
Eçija
Elmina
Erfurt
Famagusta
Florence
Frankfurt am Main
Frankfurt an der Oder
Freising
Fulda
Genova
Ghent
Glarus
Goa
Gorinchem
Gotha
Granada
Groningen
Hamburg
Heidelberg
's-Hertogenbosch
Hormuz
Ingolstadt
Istanbul
Jena
Kassel
Kilwa
Koblenz
Leipzig
Leuven
Liège
Lindau
Lisbon
London
Luzern
Lübeck
Lüneburg
Lyon
Malaga
Magdeburg
Mainz
Marburg
Mechelen
Messina
Mexico
Milan
Mombasa
Mons
Montpellier
München
Münster
Napoli
Nîmes
Nördlingen
Nuremberg
Osnabrück
Palermo
Paris
Parma
Poitiers
Prague
Regensburg
Ródhos
Rome
Rostock
Rothenburg
Rouen
Safi
Salé
Salzburg
Schaffhausen
Schwyz
Seville
Siena
Sion
Sofala
Speyer
Stade
Strasbourg
Straubing
Tanger
Toledo
Tours
Trapani
Trier
Ulm
Unterwalden
Uri
Utrecht
Valladolid
Valletta
Venice
Weimar
Wesel
Wien
Wismar
Wittenberg
Würzburg
Worms
Zug
Zürich
Volume II
(1575)

Alexandria
Algiers
Alhama
Antequera
Avignon
Baden
Baia
Basel
Besançon
Bilbao
Blâmont
Blois
Bonn
Bourbourg
Bourges
Brielle
Brühl
Cambridge
Colmar
Conil
Corfu
Damascus
Dordrecht
Duisburg
Dunkerque
Emden
Emmerich
Freiberg
Gdansk
Gennep
Görlitz
Gravelines
Grodno
Ieper
Innsbruck
Iráklion
Jérez de la Frontera
Haarlem
Huy
Kalkar
Kampen
Kempten
Kleve
Konstanz
La Rochelle
Leiden
Limburg
Loja
Maastricht
Mahdia
Mantua
Marseille
Meissen
Metz
Middelburg
Modon
Moscow
Namur
Neuss
Nijmegen
Orléans
Oxford
Penón de Vélez
de la Gomera

Porec
Pozzuoli
Rome (ancient)
Rouffach
Sankt Gallen
Santander
Sibenik
Schwäbisch Hall
Tunis (II-57)
Tunis (II-58)
Vejer de la Frontera
Velez-Malaga
Windsor
Wissembourg
Zons
Volume III
(1581)

Bristol
Chester
Chimay
Dordrecht
Enkhuizen
Edinburgh
Franeker
Grenoble
Königsberg
Landshut
Leeuwarden
Leuven
Loreto
Luxembourg
Maastricht
Mariembourg
Norwich
Orvieto
Passau
Philippeville
Riga
Romans
Trento
Vilnius
Walcourt
Weimar
Zurich
Zwolle


Volume IV
(1588)

Arnsberg
Bolsward
Boppard
Bergen
Béthune
Bologna
Bratislava
Bressanone
Canterbury
Chios
Copenhagen
Dortmund
Eisleben
Haderslev
Harlingen
Helsingborg
Helsingør
Hindeloopen
Husum
Kiel
Landskrona
Lauingen
Lier
Lippstadt
Lund
Malmö
München
Münden
Oberwesel
Ostia
Seville
Soest
Stavoren
Stockholm
Szczecin
Tournai
Tübingen
Vicenza


Volume V
(1598)

Caiazzo
Calais
Cartama
Catania
Cochem
Fondi
Gallipoli
Gmunden
Granada
Coimbra
Hardales
Harderwijk
Helsingør
Kolding
Linz
Lisbon
Lüneburg
Münstermaifeld
Odense
Palmanova
Plön
Ratzeburg
Regensburg
Ribe
Saintes
Seville
Stade
Świebodzin
Toledo
Visby


Volume VI
(1617)

Brno
Budapest
Exeter
Cluj-Napoca
Cork
Dublin
Galway
Kraków
Lancaster
Limerick
Lublin
Lviv
Penig
Poznan
Richmond
Sankt Pölten
Shrewsbury
Warsaw
Wien
Zamość
Znojmo
York