Facts in brief:
Founded as Etruscan hill town; later was Roman city of Sena Julia (3rd cen. BC); flourished under Lombard kings (6th cen. AD); was medieval self-governing commune (constitution in 1179); was medieval seat of pro-imperial, Ghibelline power; was economic & territorial rival of Guelf (anti-imperial) Florence; was ravaged by Black Death in 1348; was ruled by Charles of Anjou in 13th cen., the Visconti of Milan in the early 15th cen., & the Medici of Florence after 1557.
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