Facts in brief:
Etruscan town was taken by Gallic Boii 4th century BCE; was Roman colony ca. 196 BCE; part of Greek exarchate of Ravenna 6th century CE, then went to pope; damaged in Goth and Hun invasions. There was internal Guelph-Ghibelline strife and a series of wars was fought from the mid-13th century through the early 14th century between Guelf-controlled Florence and allies (Montepulciano, Bologna, and Orvieto) and their Ghibelline opponents (Pisa, Siena, Pistoia, and Arezzo). Bologna thrived under Papal States from 1506.
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